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Antibiotics are drugs used to treat bacterial infections, but over time, bacteria can develop the ability to resist these drugs, making infections much harder to treat. This problem is compounded by the overuse and misuse of antibiotics, which speeds up the development of resistance. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest threats to global health today. In the United States alone, more than 2.8 million antibiotic-resistance infections occur each year, and at least 35,000 people die as a result. Dr. Ramanan Laxminarayan, director of the One Health Trust, has stressed the importance of reducing the overuse of antibiotics in agriculture, where they are often used to promote growth in animals and to prevent disease, leading to the spread of resistance. So what can be done to combat this growing crisis? One strategy is to reduce the overuse of antibiotics, by only using them when necessary and as prescribed by a doctor. Another strategy is to develop new antibiotics that bacteria have not acquired resistance to, such as teixobactin, as well as alternative treatments for bacterial infections, such as bacteriophages (viruses that infect and kill bacteria). By learning about antibiotic resistance and the efforts to combat it, you can play a role in protecting global health and preserving the effectiveness of antibiotics for future generations.
The discovery of antibiotics in the 20th Century revolutionized healthcare, adding an average of 20 years to everyone's life. However, the overuse and misuse of antibiotics have led to the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, or superbugs, which could cause a health crisis worse than any we've experienced this century. By 2050, it's predicted that 10 million people will die every year from complications with superbugs. A world without antibiotics would be catastrophic, impacting our food chain and causing many to die younger than they do now. As students, it's important to understand the consequences of antibiotic misuse and to be cautious when taking antibiotics. By finishing the full course of antibiotics, we can prevent the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Additionally, we should be aware of the need for new antibiotics and support efforts to fund research into finding them. Anticipating problems and taking action before they become global crises is key to protecting our health and future.
If you're looking for a field of study that is both fascinating and essential to our everyday lives, then look no further than Microbiology! Microbiology is the study of microscopic organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and algae. It is a field that has a significant impact on our health, food, environment, and much more. One of the most appealing aspects of Microbiology is that it has a direct impact on our daily lives. For example, microbiologists play a critical role in developing vaccines, antibiotics, and other treatments for infectious diseases. They also work to ensure the safety of our food supply by monitoring for harmful bacteria and other microorganisms. In terms of research and innovation, Microbiology is a field that is constantly evolving. There are always new discoveries being made, such as the recent development of CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology. Microbiology also has a rich history, with notable figures such as Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch making groundbreaking contributions to the field. At the undergraduate level, students can expect to take courses in areas such as microbial genetics, immunology, and virology. There are also opportunities for further specialization, such as studying environmental microbiology or medical microbiology. Real-life examples of exciting careers in Microbiology include working as a clinical microbiologist, a food microbiologist, or a research scientist. There are a range of potential future jobs and roles that this field of study might be directly helpful for, including working in public health, biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, and more. Notable employers in the field include the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the World Health Organization (WHO), and pharmaceutical companies such as Pfizer and Merck. To succeed in Microbiology, students should have a strong interest in science and a natural curiosity about the world around them. They should also be detail-oriented, analytical, and have excellent problem-solving skills. Overall, studying Microbiology is an exciting and rewarding experience that has the potential to make a real difference in the world. So if you're interested in a field that combines cutting-edge research with practical applications, then Microbiology might just be the perfect fit for you!
Horseshoe crabs, a resilient species that has existed for over 450 million years, are facing heightened pressures due to the booming global demand for their blue blood. This blood is the only known natural source of amebocyte lysate, a clotting agent used to detect dangerous endotoxins in a variety of human medical products, including COVID vaccines. The Atlantic horseshoe crab, already considered vulnerable by conservation groups, is facing dwindling numbers due to increased bleedings by biomedical companies. As the industry shifts towards the Atlantic species, questions arise about our obligations to the animals that supply life-saving materials for human benefit.
Did you know that some viruses are actually good for you? Bacteriophages, or phages for short, are natural enemies of bacteria that can protect our health by killing germs that make us sick. Unlike antibiotics, phages are highly specific and won't harm the good microbes in our bodies. With the rise of antibiotic-resistant infections, pharmaceutical companies are giving phages a second look. In fact, a recent clinical trial showed that they work against antibiotic-resistant ear infections. Researchers are also using them to treat infected wounds in veterans and diabetics and to stop the spread of antibiotic-resistant infections. So, if you're interested in learning more about how these tiny viruses can help us fight disease, read on!
The immune system is a crucial part of our body's interconnected system, and a healthy gut microbiome is critical to a healthy immune system. Rather than trying to boost our immune system, we should focus on supporting it through a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise, a diverse diet with plenty of fiber and polyphenols, stress reduction, and good sleep. While there is no magic pill to boost our immune response, scientists are constantly developing new drug treatments and therapies to combat a wide range of diseases. It is also important to note that risky procedures such as faecal transplants should only be done within the confines of a medical clinic. By understanding how our immune system works, we can take steps to keep it healthy and help win the war against infection.
Millions of people with IBS and IBD may find relief with Ferrocalm, a natural food supplement containing a friendly strain of live bacteria that has shown in animal models to reduce symptoms during active flare-ups. Developed over 10 years of R&D at the University of Bristol, Ferrocalm aims to alleviate stomach cramps, bloating, diarrhea, and constipation. Clinical trials in patients with inflammatory bowel disease are set for 2024 to test efficacy as a pharmaceutical treatment. Dr. Jenny Bailey, CEO of Ferryx, has spent 15 years researching gut inflammation to find a natural solution to improve quality of life for people who suffer from IBS and other gut conditions.
Frances Oldham Kelsey was a scientist who saved thousands of lives by rejecting an application to sell a drug called thalidomide. The drug was widely used in dozens of countries to treat insomnia, workplace stress, and nausea in pregnant women. However, Kelsey found the data on thalidomide's absorption and toxicity inadequate and rejected the application. Her earlier animal-based research demonstrated that drugs could pass from mother to fetus through the placenta, and she believed that thalidomide could cause harm to fetuses. Her decision to reject the application and ask for better evidence saved countless babies from severe birth defects caused by thalidomide. Kelsey's legacy endures as she prioritized facts over opinions and patience over shortcuts, making evidence-based medicine the foundation of reforms that continue to protect people today. By learning about Kelsey's story, students can understand the importance of evidence-based research and the impact of their decisions in science and medicine.
The world is still facing daily COVID-19 infections and the threat of virus mutation, but it's not too late to change the game. A pandemic vaccine alliance, similar to NATO, could be the solution to overcome the "free-rider problem" in global health efforts and ensure the world's biological security.
Have you ever wondered how diseases spread and how they can be controlled? Are you passionate about improving public health and saving lives? If so, a career in epidemiology might be just what you're looking for! Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health and disease in populations. It involves investigating patterns and causes of diseases, developing and implementing interventions to prevent and control them, and evaluating the effectiveness of these interventions. Epidemiologists work in a variety of settings, including government agencies, hospitals, universities, research institutions, and non-profit organizations. As an epidemiologist, you could work on a range of public health issues, from infectious diseases like COVID-19 and Ebola to chronic diseases like cancer and heart disease. You could investigate outbreaks of foodborne illness, design and evaluate vaccination programs, or study the effects of environmental exposures on health. Your work could help to inform public policy, improve health outcomes, and save lives. Typical duties of an epidemiologist include designing and conducting studies, collecting and analyzing data, interpreting results, and communicating findings to stakeholders. Epidemiologists may specialize in specific areas such as infectious disease epidemiology, environmental epidemiology, or social epidemiology. Other related fields include biostatistics, health policy, and global health. To become an epidemiologist, you typically need a graduate degree in epidemiology or a related field such as public health or biostatistics. Popular undergraduate majors include biology, chemistry, mathematics, and statistics. Helpful personal attributes for epidemiologists include strong analytical skills, attention to detail, and the ability to communicate complex information to a variety of audiences. Job prospects for epidemiologists are strong, with employment projected to grow faster than average over the next decade. There are a variety of potential employers for epidemiologists, including government agencies such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO), hospitals and healthcare systems, universities and research institutions, and non-profit organizations such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and Doctors Without Borders. Some notable epidemiologists include Dr. Anthony Fauci, Dr. Nancy Messonnier, and Dr. Michael Osterholm. If you're interested in a career in epidemiology, there are many exciting opportunities to explore. With your skills and knowledge, you could make a real difference in improving public health and saving lives.
Genome-edited CAR T-cells treated a young patient's incurable T-cell leukaemia, leading to complete remission after just 28 days. Designed and developed by researchers at UCL and GOSH, the treatment represents a cutting-edge approach that paves the way for other new treatments and ultimately better futures for sick children.
Do you have a passion for helping others and a fascination with the human eye? If so, a career in optometry could be the perfect fit for you! Optometrists are healthcare professionals who specialize in diagnosing and treating vision problems and eye diseases. They play a vital role in helping people maintain healthy eyes and clear vision. As an optometrist, you'll have the opportunity to work with patients of all ages, from children to seniors. You'll use state-of-the-art technology to examine patients' eyes and diagnose problems such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism. You'll also be able to detect and treat eye diseases such as glaucoma, cataracts, and macular degeneration. One of the most appealing aspects of a career in optometry is the ability to make a real difference in people's lives. Imagine helping a child see clearly for the first time or saving someone's vision by detecting a serious eye disease early on. Optometrists have the power to improve their patients' quality of life in meaningful ways. In addition to traditional optometry, there are many areas of specialization within the field. Some optometrists choose to focus on pediatric optometry, working with children to ensure they have healthy eyes and clear vision. Others specialize in contact lenses, helping patients find the perfect lenses to fit their unique needs. And still others focus on low vision, working with patients who have severe visual impairments to help them navigate the world around them. To become an optometrist, you'll need to complete a Doctor of Optometry (OD) degree from an accredited optometry school. Popular undergraduate majors for aspiring optometrists include biology, chemistry, and physics. In addition to completing a rigorous academic program, you'll also need to pass a national board exam to become licensed to practice. Helpful personal attributes for a career in optometry include strong communication skills, attention to detail, and a passion for helping others. You'll also need to be comfortable using technology and working with a wide range of patients. Job prospects for optometrists are strong, with a projected growth rate of 10% over the next decade. Optometrists can work in a variety of settings, from private practices to hospitals to retail stores. Some notable employers in the field include LensCrafters, Kaiser Permanente, and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. So if you're looking for a career that combines cutting-edge technology, meaningful patient interactions, and the opportunity to make a real difference in people's lives, consider a career in optometry!
Spices have been used for thousands of years for their medicinal properties. The ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans used spices such as cinnamon, turmeric, and cumin for their health benefits. In India, Ayurvedic medicine has been using spices for centuries to treat various ailments. Spices are rich in antioxidants and have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and analgesic properties. They can help with digestive issues, inflammation, and even chronic diseases like diabetes and heart disease. Recent research has shown that certain spices like turmeric, ginger, and black pepper can help alleviate symptoms of depression and anxiety. Another study found that cinnamon can lower blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes. The use of spices in alternative medicine has become increasingly popular in Western countries. Dr. Andrew Weil, a leading figure in integrative medicine, has written extensively about the health benefits of spices. He recommends adding turmeric to your diet to reduce inflammation and prevent chronic disease. Another notable academic in the field is Dr. Michael Greger, a physician and author of How Not to Die. In his book, he highlights the benefits of consuming spices such as cinnamon and ginger for their anti-cancer properties. Spices are not only delicious but also have amazing healing properties. Incorporating them into your diet can have a significant impact on your health and wellbeing. So, next time you reach for that spice jar, remember the healing power of nature at your fingertips.
Have you ever wondered if there was a way to rejuvenate scars and restore healthy skin? Well, researchers from Imperial College London have found that hair follicle transplants can do just that! In a new study, skin scars were treated with hair follicle transplants and showed remarkable changes towards the profile of healthy, uninjured skin. This opens up new avenues for treating scars and could even change our approach to preventing them.
Vaccines are likely the most important public health intervention of the last 100 years, having saved over a billion lives. They have led to a massive reduction in child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa and can even prevent cancer. A world without vaccines would be unimaginable, with outbreaks of disease regularly all over the world. Vaccines are the only public health intervention that can bring equality, as they protect not only oneself but also one's family and community. While anti-vaccination fears have been around for over a century, it's important to engage with people where they are and understand their context, concerns, and experiences with health and vaccines. Taking a vaccine is not just a personal choice, but a moral choice that affects other people. Vaccines are fundamental to the privileges we have in the modern world and make it a safe place for most of us to be.
Are you fascinated by the human body and how it works? Do you dream of becoming a doctor and making a difference in people's lives? Then pre-medicine might be the perfect field of study for you! Pre-medicine is a challenging and rewarding field that prepares students for medical school and a career in healthcare. It encompasses a wide range of subjects, from biology and chemistry to anatomy and physiology. Through this field of study, you will gain a deep understanding of the human body and the diseases that affect it. Research in pre-medicine is constantly evolving, with new innovations and breakthroughs being made all the time. For example, recent studies have shown that stem cell therapy may be a promising treatment for a variety of conditions, from heart disease to Parkinson's. Additionally, academic figures like Dr. Anthony Fauci have made significant contributions to the field, particularly in the area of infectious diseases. At the undergraduate level, typical majors and modules include biology, chemistry, and biochemistry. These foundational courses provide a strong basis for further specialization in areas such as neuroscience, pharmacology, or genetics. For example, you could become a specialist in neurology and work with patients who have disorders like Alzheimer's or Parkinson's. The potential career paths for pre-med graduates are vast and varied. Many go on to become doctors, working in fields such as pediatrics, cardiology, or oncology. Others pursue careers in related fields, such as medical research or public health. Notable employers include world-renowned hospitals such as the Mayo Clinic and Johns Hopkins, as well as organizations like the World Health Organization and Doctors Without Borders. To succeed in pre-medicine, it's important to have a strong work ethic, a passion for learning, and excellent communication skills. You should also have a keen interest in science and a desire to make a difference in people's lives. In conclusion, pre-medicine is an exciting and challenging field of study that offers a wealth of opportunities for those who are passionate about healthcare. With a strong foundation in biology and chemistry, you can specialize in a variety of areas and pursue a rewarding career in medicine or related fields. So if you're ready to make a difference in the world, consider studying pre-medicine and joining the ranks of healthcare professionals who are changing lives every day.
Organ transplants are a life-saving medical breakthrough that have revolutionized the field of medicine. Kidneys are essential organs that filter waste material from the blood and process it into urine. A typical dialysis patient has a poorer life expectancy than many cancers. Removing one kidney should not affect someone's lifespan or quality of life. A kidney from a living donor in general will have a much better quality because it comes from a healthy and tested person. Kidneys are expected to survive up to twice as long on average in the recipient. Currently, it's not allowed to donate a kidney under any form of payment. However, incentivizing people to donate more is actually a way to starve black markets. It's not to recreate them, it's to undermine them. If you reward a person amply for the sacrifice they've made, something they go into with their eyes open and well informed, that's not exploitation. Organ donation is an incredible gift that can save someone's life so palpably, and everyone should consider donating.
The Good Gut by Justin and Erica Sonnenburg is a groundbreaking work that explores the fascinating relationship between our bodies and the trillions of organisms that we host, collectively known as the microbiota. The Sonnenburgs argue that the microbiota plays a vital role in determining our health, mood, and even personality. However, due to factors such as diet and antibiotic overuse, our gut microbiota is facing a "mass extinction event," which could be behind many of our modern afflictions. This timely investigation offers a new plan for health that focuses on nourishing our microbiota, including recipes and a menu plan. Recommended for anyone interested in the fascinating world of microbiology, health and wellness, and the human body. This book will be particularly relevant to students of biology, medicine, nutrition, and environmental studies, as well as healthcare professionals and anyone interested in taking control of their own health. The Good Gut provides a unique perspective on the importance of our gut microbiota and its impact on our overall well-being. It offers practical tips and advice on how to nourish our microbiota through dietary and lifestyle choices, and how to manage the aging microbiota. This book is a must-read for anyone looking to make informed choices about their health.
Do you have a passion for helping children? Do you want to make a difference in their lives? If so, then a career as a Pediatrician may be perfect for you! Pediatricians are medical doctors who specialize in the care of children, from newborns to teenagers. They play a crucial role in ensuring that children grow up healthy and strong. As a Pediatrician, you will be responsible for diagnosing and treating a wide range of illnesses and injuries that affect children. You will also provide preventive care, such as vaccinations, and help parents and caregivers to understand how to keep their children healthy. One of the most appealing aspects of this career is the opportunity to make a real difference in the lives of children. You may be the one to identify a serious illness early on, saving a child's life. Or you may be the one to help a child overcome a chronic condition, allowing them to thrive and reach their full potential. Pediatricians can specialize in a variety of areas, such as neonatology, cardiology, or oncology. This allows you to focus on the specific needs of your patients and become an expert in your field. To become a Pediatrician, you will need to complete a Bachelor's degree in a relevant field, such as Biology or Chemistry, followed by four years of medical school. After that, you will need to complete a residency program in Pediatrics, which typically lasts three years. In addition to the required education and training, there are certain personal attributes that can be helpful in this career. These include empathy, patience, and excellent communication skills. Job prospects for Pediatricians are excellent, with a projected growth rate of 14% over the next decade. There are a wide range of potential employers, including hospitals, private practices, and government agencies. Some notable employers include Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Boston Children's Hospital, and St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. In conclusion, a career as a Pediatrician can be incredibly rewarding, both personally and professionally. If you have a passion for helping children and want to make a difference in the world, then this may be the perfect career for you!
Are you someone who loves to take care of their skin and is fascinated by the science of it all? Do you have an eye for detail and a passion for helping others look and feel their best? If so, then a career in dermatology might be the perfect fit for you! Dermatology is a branch of medicine that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of skin, hair, and nail conditions. It's a field that's constantly evolving, with new research and technology being developed all the time. As a dermatologist, you'll have the opportunity to work with patients of all ages, from newborns to the elderly, and help them with a wide range of skin issues. One of the most appealing aspects of a career in dermatology is the variety of conditions you'll encounter. From acne and eczema to skin cancer and psoriasis, no two cases are the same. You'll have the chance to use your expertise to diagnose and treat these conditions, as well as perform cosmetic procedures such as Botox injections and laser hair removal. To become a dermatologist, you'll need to complete extensive education and training. This typically includes a four-year undergraduate degree in a science-related field such as biology or chemistry, followed by four years of medical school. After that, you'll need to complete a residency program in dermatology, which can take up to four years. In addition to a strong academic background, there are certain personal attributes that can be helpful in a career in dermatology. These include excellent communication skills, a compassionate nature, and a strong attention to detail. You'll also need to be comfortable working with patients of all ages and backgrounds, and be able to handle the emotional aspects of the job. The job prospects for dermatologists are excellent, with a strong demand for their services in both the public and private sectors. Some notable potential employers include hospitals, clinics, and private practices. You may also have the opportunity to work in research or academia, helping to develop new treatments and technologies for skin conditions. So if you have a passion for skin care and a desire to make a difference in people's lives, a career in dermatology might be the perfect choice for you. With hard work and dedication, you could be on your way to a fulfilling and rewarding career in this exciting field.