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Are you curious about how attitudes are formed and how they can be changed? The third edition of this book explores the latest scientific methods used to understand attitudes, with a balanced consideration of all approaches. From diverse research threads across the world, this book provides fundamental concepts to better understand attitudes. Discover the flurry of research activity in this dynamic subject over the past few years and gain insight into the complexities of human behavior. Recommended for psychology students, social scientists, and anyone interested in understanding human behavior, this book provides a comprehensive overview of the scientific methods used to study attitudes. Professionals in fields such as marketing, politics, and social advocacy can benefit from the insights gained into how attitudes can be influenced and changed. This book also has relevance for those interested in personal growth and self-reflection, as it explores the complexities of attitudes and how they shape our perceptions and actions.
Do you ever wonder why you choose the clothes you wear? Researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital and the London College of Fashion have uncovered key factors that guide clothing choices, such as colour preferences and personality traits. By exploring fashion aesthetics, this study sheds light on the art of self-expression and its impact on well-being. Discover how understanding your aesthetic tastes can inform your clothing decisions and boost your self-confidence.
Learn how to protect yourself from misinformation! A study by the University of Cambridge and Bristol showed that short animations familiarizing people with tactics behind misinformation can increase their ability to spot it and resist it.
Have you ever wondered why you have certain musical preferences? A new study published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology found that personality traits are linked to musical styles, with extraversion positively correlated with contemporary music and openness associated with mellow, contemporary, intense and sophisticated music. Dr. Greenberg, a musician, neuroscientist, and psychologist, says that music could be a powerful bridge between cultures.
Offering a small cash reward for accuracy can help people distinguish between truth and misinformation, according to a study from the University of Cambridge and New York University. The research suggests that social media's "perverse incentives" are a significant factor in the spread of fake news. The study involved four experiments with over 3,300 people from the US, with half offered up to $1 to identify true or false headlines. The incentive made people 31% better at discerning true from fake news. The study also found that incentives reduced partisan division over the truthfulness of news by around 30%.
Advertising is designed to attach emotions to brands, and meta-communication (the twiddly bits like music, characters, and setting) is used to do this. We are programmed not to be able to unprocess meta-communication, which means that once we see it, we've got it. To counter-argue the emotion in advertising, we need to watch ads carefully and ask ourselves what they're trying to influence and what's behind the ad. By doing this, we can emotionally counter-argue the ad and feel more in control of our lives. Learning about advertising can help us become more aware of how it affects us and how we can resist its influence. Understanding meta-communication and emotional appeals can also help us in other areas of our lives, such as when making decisions or analyzing information.
The rise of selfie culture and the link to narcissism is a fascinating topic that has captured the attention of psychologists. While some self-love is natural, excessive self-love can be a psychological disorder. As Freud popularised ideas like the ego, the unconscious and talking to a therapist, he also explored the concept of narcissism. Psychologists have developed tests to measure personality traits like narcissism, and the results show that narcissists tend to be more active on social media, with men posting more selfies than women. While selfies may seem harmless, they can contribute to feelings of envy, inadequacy, isolation, and insecurity. Understanding the impact of social media on our mental health is essential, and exploring these ideas can help us become more self-aware, empathetic, and emotionally intelligent individuals.
Lying is a common part of our daily lives, with people telling anywhere from 10 to 200 lies a day. However, detecting lies has been a challenge throughout history, from medieval torture devices to modern-day polygraphs. But what if we focused on analyzing the lies themselves, rather than just the physiological changes that may or may not occur when someone is lying? Communication science has identified four common patterns in the subconscious language of deception: less self-referencing, more negativity, simpler explanations, and longer, more convoluted sentence structures. By being aware of these patterns, you can better spot lies in your daily life. While many lies we encounter may be harmless, being able to recognize them can help you build stronger relationships and make better decisions.
Can you distinguish between real and fake news on social media? MIT scholars found that the act of considering whether to share news items reduces people's ability to tell truths from falsehoods by 35%. Learn more about the essential tension between sharing and accuracy in the realm of social media, and the potential implications for online news consumption.
How do public ceremonies establish authority? Why do advertisers pay millions for Super Bowl commercials? Michael Chwe's book, "Rational Ritual," answers these questions by exploring the power of "common knowledge." By using game theory, Chwe shows how people coordinate their actions by forming shared knowledge with one another. He applies this concept to analyze a range of rituals across history and cultures, from political ceremonies to public festivals. This book offers a fascinating look at the relationship between rationality and culture, and how game theory can be applied to a broad spectrum of problems." Recommended for social science and humanities scholars, as well as anyone interested in the power of shared knowledge and the role it plays in shaping cultural practices. The book's insights are relevant to fields such as anthropology, sociology, psychology, and communication studies. It may also be of interest to professionals in advertising and marketing, as well as those involved in organizing public ceremonies and events. Additionally, the book offers a unique perspective on the Super Bowl and other major cultural events, making it a great read for sports fans and pop culture enthusiasts.
Despite the increasing availability of knowledge and expertise, many people continue to reject expert advice as they fall prey to misinformation. This paradox of ignorance has significant implications for society, from public health to politics. But why do we reject expertise even when we need it? Biases have a role to play in this, such as the Dunning-Kruger Effect. This is a cognitive bias where unskilled individuals overestimate their abilities and knowledge, while highly skilled individuals underestimate theirs. This can lead to a dangerous overconfidence in one's own expertise especially in non-experts, and thus a dismissal of others' advice and knowledge. Another factor influencing the rejection of expert advice is the role of identity and group dynamics. We are more likely to trust those who share our values and beliefs, and less likely to trust those who do not. This can lead to a rejection of expert advice that conflicts with our group's values or beliefs. Furthermore, the influence of social media and echo chambers can amplify misinformation, forming a closed network that is hard for accurate information to penetrate through. The consequences of rejecting expertise can be seen in many areas, from the anti-vaccination movement to climate change denial. But there are steps we can take to combat this paradox of ignorance, such as promoting critical thinking and media literacy, and building bridges between experts and the public. Some resources that could enhance your understanding of ignorance include the works of Steven Novella, who is a proponent of scientific skepticism (questioning the veracity of scientific claims which lack empirical evidence), and former professor of US national security affairs Tom Nichols, who tackles the dangers of anti-intellectualism in The Death of Expertise by Tom Nichols. In conclusion, the paradox of ignorance highlights the need for increased critical thinking and media literacy, as well as efforts to bridge the gap between experts and the public. By understanding the factors that contribute to the rejection of expertise, we can work towards a more informed and engaged society, better equipped to tackle the challenges we face.
Are you constantly scrolling through Instagram, Twitter and Facebook? Do you find yourself captivated by the power of social media to influence our daily lives? If so, the study of Social Media might be the perfect field for you to explore at university undergraduate level. Social Media is a rapidly-growing field of study that explores the impact of social media on society, politics, economics, and culture. It's a fascinating field that incorporates a wide range of interesting and meaningful aspects of the topic, from the psychology behind social media addiction to the ethics of online privacy. In recent years, there has been an explosion of research and innovation in the field of Social Media, with academics exploring everything from the role of social media in political campaigns to the impact of social media on mental health. Some of the most inspiring academic discourse in this field has come from figures such as danah boyd, who has done groundbreaking research on the intersection of social media and youth culture, and Sherry Turkle, who has explored the impact of technology on our relationships. At the undergraduate level, students typically take courses in areas such as Social Media Marketing, Digital Storytelling, and Online Communities. There are also opportunities for further specialization in areas such as Social Media Analytics and Social Media Management. Some interesting and enticing examples of real-life specializations include working as a Social Media Manager for a major fashion brand, or becoming a Social Media Analyst for a political campaign. The study of Social Media can lead to a wide range of potential future jobs and roles, including Social Media Manager, Digital Marketing Strategist, and Online Community Manager. Key industries for prospective future employment include advertising, public relations, and journalism. Notable potential employers from the public and private sectors around the world include companies such as Google, Facebook, and the United Nations. To succeed in the field of Social Media, it's helpful to have strong communication skills, an interest in technology and marketing, and a passion for understanding how social media shapes our world. If you're interested in exploring this exciting field further, consider studying Social Media at university undergraduate level.
Are you interested in helping students achieve their full potential? Do you have a passion for psychology and education? Then a career as a School Psychologist might be the perfect fit for you! As a School Psychologist, you will work with students, parents, and teachers to promote academic success, positive behavior, and mental health. You'll use your knowledge of psychology to understand and address the social, emotional, and academic needs of students. One of the most appealing aspects of this field is the opportunity to make a real difference in the lives of young people. Whether you're helping a student overcome a learning disability, counseling a student struggling with anxiety, or collaborating with teachers to create a positive classroom environment, you'll play a critical role in shaping the future of our society. Typical duties of a School Psychologist include conducting assessments and evaluations, developing individualized education plans, providing counseling and support services, and collaborating with teachers and other professionals to create a positive and inclusive learning environment. There are also many potential areas of specialization within this field, including working with students with disabilities, addressing behavioral issues, and promoting mental health and wellness. To become a School Psychologist, you'll typically need a master's degree in School Psychology or a related field. Popular undergraduate majors include Psychology, Education, and Child Development. In addition to formal education, it's helpful to possess strong interpersonal skills, empathy, and the ability to work collaboratively with others. The job prospects for School Psychologists are strong, with a projected growth rate of 14% over the next decade. There are many notable and attractive potential employers in both the public and private sectors, including school districts, universities, and healthcare organizations. Some specific examples include the New York City Department of Education, the Los Angeles Unified School District, and the Mayo Clinic. So if you're looking for a challenging and rewarding career that allows you to make a real difference in the lives of young people, consider becoming a School Psychologist.
What really happens when we reach for our favourite comfort foods? Is it really about solace and familiar flavours or is there more to it? Research uncovering some surprising contradictions might just change your perception of comfort food forever. People may turn to different types of comfort food depending on their mood, with some foods providing psychological benefits and others merely offering temporary pleasure. By understanding the nuances of comfort food, we may be able to make more informed choices about what we eat when seeking comfort.
Do you have a way with words? Are you a natural storyteller? Are you looking for a career that combines creativity, strategy, and communication? Look no further than the exciting field of copywriting! At its core, copywriting is the art and science of writing persuasive and compelling content that motivates people to take action. From advertising slogans to website copy, from social media posts to product descriptions, copywriters are the masterminds behind the words that sell products, services, and ideas. But copywriting is so much more than just writing catchy phrases. It requires a deep understanding of consumer psychology, market trends, and branding strategies. Copywriters must be able to research and analyze target audiences, develop unique selling propositions, and craft messages that resonate with their readers. In the world of copywriting, there are countless innovators and thought leaders who have made significant contributions to the field. From David Ogilvy, the "father of advertising," to Ann Handley, the queen of content marketing, there is no shortage of inspiring figures to learn from. At the undergraduate level, students can expect to study a range of topics, including copywriting fundamentals, marketing strategy, branding, and digital media. They may also have the opportunity to specialize in areas such as social media copywriting, email marketing, or SEO writing. With a degree in copywriting, graduates can pursue a variety of exciting career paths. They may work in advertising agencies, marketing firms, or in-house marketing departments for companies in a variety of industries. Some popular job titles include copywriter, content strategist, and creative director. Notable employers include companies like Apple, Nike, and Coca-Cola. To succeed in the field of copywriting, students should possess strong writing skills, creativity, and a passion for storytelling. They should also be able to work collaboratively with other creatives and be comfortable with constructive feedback and revisions. So if you're looking for a career that combines your love of writing with your business savvy, consider studying copywriting at the undergraduate level. With its endless opportunities for creativity and innovation, the world of copywriting is waiting for you!
In recent years, avocado toast has become a popular breakfast option, largely thanks to the power of food marketing. The rise of social media platforms has created a culture of food photography, where visually stunning dishes like avocado toast are widely celebrated and shared. Capitalizing on this trend, food companies have tapped into the influence of social media influencers to promote their products, creating an avocado toast craze that has driven its popularity. Another factor contributing to the success of avocado toast is the health benefits of avocados themselves. These superfoods are high in healthy fats, fiber, and essential nutrients, making them a desirable breakfast option for health-conscious consumers. Food companies have marketed avocado toast as a nutritious option, further fueling its popularity. But beyond the obvious appeals of social media and health claims, the psychology of food marketing delves deeper into our motivations for loving avocado toast. For example, the concept of "social proof" plays a significant role in our decision-making. We tend to look to others to determine what is popular and desirable, and seeing others enjoying avocado toast only reinforces our own desire to try it. Additionally, the "scarcity principle" is at play in the appeal of avocado toast. This dish is relatively expensive and not easily made at home, which makes it more desirable to those who value exclusivity and luxury. Experts in the field of food marketing, such as Dr. Brian Wansink and Dr. John W. Pracejus, have conducted extensive research on the psychology of food marketing and its impact on consumer behavior. Their work has identified several psychological factors at play in the popularity of avocado toast. Overall, the psychology of food marketing is a fascinating and complex topic that offers a wealth of opportunities for exploration and research. By examining the various influences that contribute to the appeal of avocado toast, we can gain insight into the ways in which food marketing shapes our desires and behavior.
Reading books and stories is not just a form of entertainment; it has the power to change our perspectives and shape our beliefs. Scholars in various fields have discovered that stories have a unique ability to change our point of view and shape culture. For example, Samuel Richardson's "Pamela" challenged the traditional ideas of class, marriage, and gender, which caused quite a ruckus, but it also inspired a slew of counter-novels. Today, novels continue to inspire us and teach us valuable lessons. Recent studies show that we might not be hardwired for competition and individual heroism, but instead, we might be members of a shared quest. As students, we should keep in mind that the terrain has changed, and we should explore new stories that promise to influence, create, and spark change. So, what story will you try on next?
Are you someone who loves to listen and help people? Do you enjoy finding solutions to complex problems? If so, a career in Counseling Psychology may be perfect for you! Counseling Psychology is a field that focuses on helping individuals and groups improve their mental health and well-being. As a Counseling Psychologist, you will work with clients to identify and address their emotional, social, and behavioral issues. You will help them develop coping skills, improve their relationships, and achieve their personal goals. One of the most appealing aspects of this field is the opportunity to truly make a positive impact on people's lives. Imagine helping a teenager overcome their anxiety and depression to become a confident and successful adult. Or helping a family navigate a difficult divorce and emerge with a stronger bond. These are just a few examples of the meaningful and rewarding work that Counseling Psychologists do every day. In terms of typical duties, Counseling Psychologists may work in a variety of settings, including private practices, hospitals, schools, and community centers. They may specialize in areas such as marriage and family therapy, substance abuse counseling, or career counseling. Other related fields include social work, psychiatry, and school counseling. To become a Counseling Psychologist, you will typically need to earn a doctoral degree in Psychology, with a focus on Counseling Psychology. Popular undergraduate majors for this field include Psychology, Sociology, and Social Work. Helpful personal attributes include strong communication skills, empathy, and a non-judgmental attitude. Job prospects for Counseling Psychologists are generally positive, with a projected growth rate of 14% over the next decade. Notable potential employers include government agencies, hospitals, and non-profit organizations. Some specific examples include the National Institutes of Health, the Mayo Clinic, and the United Nations. In summary, a career in Counseling Psychology offers the opportunity to make a real difference in people's lives, while also enjoying a fulfilling and rewarding career. If you have a passion for helping others and a desire to improve mental health and well-being, this may be the perfect field for you!
Do you see social connections where others don't? A Dartmouth study shows our brains respond more strongly to information interpreted as social versus random. Previous studies relied on labels assigned by researchers, but this study uses a subjective approach based on participants' own perceptions. The results demonstrate a bias towards perceiving information as social, with participants more likely to declare random animations as social than vice versa. The findings could help us better understand autism spectrum disorder and gain a more nuanced understanding of social perception.
As we go through life, time seems to speed up, and we wonder where the time has gone. But did you know that our perception of time is a psychological construct? Our brain edits the signals it receives from our senses before serving up a final story to our conscious perception. This means that we're all living a little bit in the past, and what we think is happening right now has already transpired some time ago, probably in the ballpark of about half a second ago. Seeking novelty is the key to slowing down time, and it can be as simple as putting your wristwatch on your other hand. By engaging your brain in new ways, you have more footage to draw upon, and it feels like your life is lasting longer. Learning more about how our brain perceives time can help us appreciate the present moment and make the most of our time.